Fingerprinting is one of the most popular and commonly used biometric methods. Biometric fingerprint systems are compact, simple to use, and need little power. It is available and used in law enforcement, finance, forensics, health care, and many other areas around the world. The methodologies utilized in each suggested fingerprint biometric system were examined in this study. Several studies have been conducted.
One of the most well-known and well-publicized biometrics is fingerprint identification. Biometric door lock/fingerprints have been used for identification for over a century due to their uniqueness and constancy through time but have only recently become automated due to advances in computing power. Fingerprint identification is popular due to its inherent ease of acquisition and the multiple applications available.
When viewing the friction ridge skin, the high, peaked component is shown by a sequence of black lines, while the valley between these ridges is denoted by white space and represents the friction ridge skin’s low, shallow component. The minutiae, or the position and direction of ridge ends and bifurcations (splits) along a ridge, are the most important fingerprint features since they are the most difficult to identify.
⁃ Biometric fingerprint systems have been around and in use for a long time, long before computers were used in human activities. For recognition and authentication, these systems rely on the physical or biological characteristics of humans. Fingerprints, iris, and faces are the most commonly used biological traits or attributes. The list of developments in this field is growing, and it now encompasses different biometrics.
⁃ When compared to behavioral qualities such as signature, voice, or keystroke, biological traits perform far better and are much more trustworthy. Because the latter is subject to change over time, the enrolled biometric references must be updated each time they are utilized.
⁃ Because a person can be automatically identified based on his or her physiological characteristics1, biometrics is referred to as biometric recognition. Each individual has distinct features that define “who they are” rather than “what they have.”
Fingerprint systems and technologies:
Early fingerprint systems, which were found in the late 1800s, used card filing to keep criminal fingerprints in a database. To determine the identities of the criminals, fingerprints from the crime site are taken and compared to this database.
⁃ In biometric security systems, fingerprint identification is used. They investigated fingerprint matching techniques, which are used to determine whether two fingerprint scans are the same.
⁃ The goal is to distribute the key among all biometric systems in use. Each biometric system should generate a finite number of vectors, which will be utilized as the key. For each biometric door lock each of these keys, a hash function is created and stored in hardware stores. The technology uses a combination of two biometrics: a fingerprint system and a speech recognition system.
⁃ The system’s design method is unclear. In each level of the component system, both biometric systems used a variety of methodologies. However, Gabor filters are employed for performance in the first system, while the minutiae approach is used for extraction and verification.
⁃ The extraction of connected boundaries is used to recognize fingerprints –
- The method described in this study is based on the notion that there are issues in detecting likeness for fingerprints due to discontinuities, spots, independent ridges, and other factors.
- They proposed employing the local characteristics minutiae points in fingerprint images as objects images to generate connected boundary components in this manner.
- The goal is to create a line drawing of an image or anything similar to it. In practice, it entailed looking for spots where the intensity of the light fluctuated rapidly. They suggested a minutiae extraction approach based on the Crossing Number concept.