What are the Main Causes of Neurological Disorders?

Neurological disorders

Neurological disorders have several causes. The most common and important ones are mentioned here.

Neurological disorders can be defined medically as disorders that impact the brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves present all through the human body. Electrical, biochemical, or structural abnormalities in the spinal cord, brain, or other nerves can lead to a wide range of signs and symptoms. Some examples include altered consciousness levels, pain, confusion, seizures, loss of sensation, poor coordination, muscle weakness, and paralysis. Read on to know the causes of such disorders and other details.

Types of neurological disorders

There are several kinds of neurological diseases, such as:

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Epilepsy
  • Migraines
  • Parkinson’s disease

As per the World Health Organization, different kinds of neurological diseases impact millions of people in the world. Over 320 million people have migraines and more than 24 million have Alzheimer’s disease.

Main causes of a neurological disease

If you feel that you or one of your loved ones is suffering from such neurological problems, you might also start wondering about the causes of such a disorder. Now, there can be diverse causes of such a dysfunction. Both the brain and the spinal cord are insulated by several membranes that are vulnerable to both pressure and force.

The peripheral nerves deep under your skin are also vulnerable to serious damage. As such, neurological diseases can impact a complete neurological pathway or just one neuron. Even the smallest disturbance to the structural pathway of a neuron can lead to dysfunction. Thus, neurological diseases can stem from several major causes, such as:

Traumatic causes:

  • Burns
  • Compression or severing of nerves
  • Nervous detachment from the spinal cord
  • Dislocation of a bone
  • Physical assault
  • Slipped vertebral disks

Infectious causes:

  • Epstein-Barr virus infection
  • Hepatitis C
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
  • Other bacterial and viral infections of the brain or the membranes of the brain
  • Lyme disease
  • Varicella-zoster virus infection
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic causes:

  • Illicit drug or alcohol abuse
  • Connective tissue disorders
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
  • Diabetes
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Hormonal disorders like hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid)
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Medication side effects
  • Neurofibromatosis (nerve tumor leading to a hearing loss)
  • Prolonged exposure to toxins like mercury, lead, and other metals
  • Nutritional deficiencies, particularly of niacin, thiamine, and vitamins B1, B6, and B12
  • Trigeminal neuralgia (chronic pain from nerve malfunction leading to a loss of facial sensation)
  • Repetitive stress injuries like carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Vascular disorders

Life-threatening causes:

  • Epilepsy
  • Inflammation of the brain because of a viral infection
  • Head trauma
  • Stroke
  • Inflammation or an infection of the sac around the brain and spinal cord called meningitis
  • Rabies
  • Heart attack (myocardial infarction)
  • Shock
  • Transient ischemic attack (sudden stroke-like symptoms as a warning sign of an imminent stroke)

The endnote

So, this was a detailed look at the different major causes of neurological problems. If you or any of your loved ones suffer from a neurological disease, make sure to book an appointment with a top neurologist to seek treatment as soon as possible. Read more about health update.

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